The Kartvelologist

The Kartvelologist” is a bilingual (Georgian and English) peer-reviewed, academic journal, covering all spheres of Kartvelological scholarship. Along with introducing scholarly novelties in Georgian Studies, it aims at popularization of essays of Georgian researchers on the international level and diffusion of foreign Kartvelological scholarship in Georgian scholarly circles.

“The Kartvelologist” issues both in printed and electronic form. In 1993-2009 it came out only in printed form (#1-15). The publisher is the “Centre for Kartvelian Studies” (TSU), financially supported by the “Fund of the Kartvelological School”. In 2011-2013 the journal is financed by Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation.

Which langauge has the Georgian Acts of the Apostles been translated from?


The provenance of the Georgian biblical text today too remains one of the cardinal issues of Georgian studies. Many Georgian and foreign researchers have dealt with the question of from which language the oldest Georgian recensions of the biblical books were translated. The research was conducted not in a complex way but involved separate books or recensions. In European Oriental Studies, and partly in Georgian Philological circles the idea became gradually popular which, on the basis of an analysis of concrete sources carried out by N. Marr, I. Molitor, R. Blake and others considers the Armenian trace to be a revision of the subsequent period. This idea is based on the view held in Medieval Georgia, facts of the earliest theological – philosophical terminology, the most recent philological analusis of the khanmeti fragments of biblical texts, the evidence of the historical process of Armenian-Georgian ecclesiastical and cultural relation. Bernard Outtier’s present essay deals with this issue. In particular, it gives a critique of the view on the Armenian provenance of the oldest Georgian recension of the Acts of the Apostles and concludes: “the idea of Prof. Garitte widely agreed upon in Western Europe  that the Georgian Acts of the Apostles was translated from the Armenian, does not seen true”. 


keywords: Acts of the Apostles, G. Garitte Category: SCHOLARLY STUDIES Authors: BERNARD OUTTIER

The Residences of Catholic Missionaries in Georgia According to Textual and Visual Narratives by Cristoforo De Castelli


This article aims to analyze and compare the narrative forms of textual and visual works by Cristoforo De Castelli (1600-1659), the Sicilian missionary in Georgia, who left behind rich materials on the 17th century period of that country. The works of Castelli include letters, reports and drawings, created throughout his twenty-five-year stay in Georgia. Sent to Rome as independent compositions the works were collected and organized into seven thematically and chronologically ordered albums by Castelli upon his return to his hometown of Palermo (1656-1658), where the manuscripts are kept today. Other works (letters and reports) are scattered in different archives and libraries in Italy (Rome, Florence and Naples). Yet, as a single narrative it combines Castelli’s life throughout his mission in Georgia with his reflections on the realities of the country.

Taking the above-mentioned materials as a foundation for this writings, the article will focus on the set of drawings of Catholic residences in different regions of Georgia (the Kingdom of Kartli, the Principalities of Guria and Odishi), which could be considered the most telling examples of the changes in Castelli’s visual narrative forms from 1631 (when he first arrived in Georgia) to 1656 (his departure to Palermo). The article will try to reveal how each residence and its setting had captured the missionary’s attention and will follow Castelli’s textual and visual evolution through this process of documenting this dynamic relationship between Catholic missionaries and local peoples.


keywords:Cristoforo De Castelli, Catholic Missionaries, Word and Image Narrative Category: SCHOLARLY STUDIES Authors: Marietta Chikhladze

Composition of Theophany on X-XI cc. Georgian Church Facades


The present paper is an attempt to analyze some samples of Georgian medieval architecture, a small group of monuments which we believe to be outstanding for their facade decoration, i.e. churches built in the 10th-11th centuries, the facades of which are decorated with figurative relief compositions of the Savior’s Glorification, the Second Coming of Christ and Theophany.

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First of all, we must determine the significance of this group of monuments and the peculiarities to be concerned below. The 10th-11th centuries have been regarded as the era of the development of picturesque, baroque-like style. Not surprisingly, with regard to facade decoration, one of the principle artistic tendencies of this epoch evinced in the diminished role of figurative representation and the increased role of ornamental decoration: in that period, within the scope of development of the same picturesque style, more and more murals appear in church interiors. Since the 11th century entire walls were painted and the ideological burden shifts inside the churches. The facades are freed from thematic compositions and become extensively decorative.


keywords:Composition of Theophany, relief, facade decor, Svetitskhoveli, Nikortsminda Category: SCHOLARLY STUDIES Authors: Nino Silagadze

The Nibelungenlied and The Man in the Panther Skin: A Comparison of Two Medieval Epics


The present paper refers to the most important epics of the High Middle Ages in Germany and Georgia: The Nibelungenlied (NL) and The Man in the Panther Skin (MPS). Both poems were composed around the year 1200 in very similar social envi-ronments (feudal system, court life, chivalry, Christianity), and both were unique secular poetries in those days.

A comparison of their characteristics seems therefore appropriate.

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In the NL, these two parts are often named Siegfried’s death and Kriemhild’s revenge. The first part recounts the wooing of Kriemhild by the hero Siegfried, their eventual marriage and his treacherous homicide. The second part tells of a second wooing of Kriemhild, this time by the widowed Hun king Etzel (Attila), their marriage and Kriemhild’s ultimate revenge on the Burgundians for Siegfried’s murder. The Klage (the lament), a poem written a couple of years after the NL, can be considered an accompanying commentary of the NL and describes the aftermath of the carnage at the Hun court.

keywords:“The Nibelungenlied”, “The Man in the Panther Skin”, medieval literature Category: SCHOLARLY STUDIES Authors: Rainer Schöffl

The Plays of Shakespeare’s Late Period and "The Man in a Panther-Skin"


The third period of Shakespeare’s works gives rise to a number of questions, such as what triggers this sudden longing from a dreamlike towards a Utopia like state of mind, perhaps the progression of the author’s life from adolescence to maturity or social and political changes in the country? Is it new literary styles and demands of theatre-goers or all of these together? These questions are actual even in the latest Shakespeare studies. These issues are still important for the latest Shakespearean literary criticism .

One further important question is the literary or world-view foundation which the playwright relies on, and which inspires him to enter the dreamlike world. This question is also preconditioned by the fact that Shakespeare’s dramaturgy was always closely connected to plot sources. One significant characteristic of Shakespeare’s plays is transformation, rethinking, and novel construction of certain episodes, topics and stories. English literary scholars are of the opinion that the author of Cymbeline was inspired by an as yet unidentified plot story. It has also been noted that this problematic play by Shakespeare is characterised by certain similarities with Beaumont and Fletcher’s dramaturgy of the same period. The plot source of these authors is also unknown (or was until quite recently). Moreover, critics have noted that Cymbeline is connected to other plays of the same period (Pericles, The Winter’s Tale, and The Tempest) as regards not only the ideal and creative world, but also the topic and plot nuances.


keywords:“The Man in the Panther-Skin”, “Cymbeline”, “Pericles”, “The Winter’s Tale”, “The Tempest”. Category: SCHOLARLY STUDIES Authors: ELGUJA KHINTIBIDZE

Azerbaijani-Georgian Literary Relations through Historical Development Process


During investigating the development trends of the Azerbaijani literature arose in Georgia in 1960-2010th years, we can see that our scientists, lived-created here, have conducted a number of successful researches in the field of literature and literary criticism and got achievements in the development and research of Azerbaijan- Georgian literary relations. If in 50-60th years of XX century Z. Borchali, A. Mursaloglu and others worked hard in this field, but after 1970 this tradition was followed by professors such as H. Vali-yev, A. Musayev, M. Hajikhalilov, F. Khubanli, Sh. Shamioglu, T. Isabalagizi and others honorably. They published numerous articles in different press organs, as well as gave these research works to the discretion of wide range of readers in books form. Looking through the Azerbaijani-speaking press organs, literary journals and collections published in Georgia in the second half of the 20th century, as well as the books of separate authors published in Baku and Tbilisi, it is clear that artistic translation takes an important place in the creativity of writers, lived-created in Georgia and they do not work in this field, no less.

Whereas they fulfilled such a glorious task adequately as translating of number of the samples from Georgian literature into our native language, delivering of spiritual word wealth of the neighboring nation to Azerbaijani readers and so firming of spiritual friendship bridge arches existed between our nations for centuries. That’s why we call them “Friendly voices – Translation Masters”. The path of late D. Aliyeva, T. Huseynov, M.H. Bakhtiyarli, A. Sarajli, I. Ismayilzadeh, V. Rustamzadeh, A. Abdulla, Z. Yagub with special contributions in the field of literary translation, was maintained by D. Karam, A. Binnetoglu, M. Chobanzadeh, H. Valiyev, E. Elsevar, S. Suleymanli, N. Nasibzadeh, V. Hajiler, Sh. Mammadli, I. Mammadli, N. Abdulrahmanli, E. Allazolgu, M. Mammadoglu, R. Hummat, A. Khansultanli, J. Mammadli, O. Kazimli and others successfully and they acquainted themselves in this direction. Their translations published in different press organs periodically, especially in some newspapers such as East Lights, Georgia, Existence, in some collections (Spring, 1980; Morning Star, 1987, 1989, 1990; Two hearts in a chest 1981; Literary Georgia, 2007, 2012 and so on.) are interesting and mentionable in terms of not only qualities of literary translation, but also artistic- aesthetic capacity and the position in the national literature. In particu-lar, the translation creativity of our compatriots who know fluently the Georgian language, Georgian literature, the history of Georgian people, future and psychological mood, is heavier and more successful.

keywords:Georgia, Azerbaijan, literary contacts, translation Category: SCHOLARLY STUDIES Authors: Mushvig Chobanov