The Kartvelologist” is a bilingual (Georgian and English) peer-reviewed, academic journal, covering all spheres of Kartvelological scholarship. Along with introducing scholarly novelties in Georgian Studies, it aims at popularization of essays of Georgian researchers on the international level and diffusion of foreign Kartvelological scholarship in Georgian scholarly circles.
“The Kartvelologist” issues both in printed and electronic form. In 1993-2009 it came out only in printed form (#1-15). The publisher is the “Centre for Kartvelian Studies” (TSU), financially supported by the “Fund of the Kartvelological School”. In 2011-2013 the journal is financed by Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation.
"Stream of Consciousness" and Otar Chiladze's Novels
Otar Chiladze is one of the Georgian writers who developed Georgian prose on the basis of numerous theories and doctrines to better present reality, characters of heroes, and their own worldviews in literary works produced in the interdisciplinary environment of the 20th century. Correspondingly, almost all main trends characteristic of the 20th-century literature can be seen in Chiladze's novels. These include clear-cut Mythologism or Remythologisation, elements of "Magic Realism" characteristic of the Latin American prose, deep psychologism - an attempt to understand the spiritual world of humans, which the author managed to show, taking into account the theories of depth psychology by Sigmund Freud and Carl Gustav Jung. His works in the genre of new historic prose are also noteworthy. The characteristic manner of writing should also be mentioned. Narration proceeds from the subjective perspective and attempts are periodically made to go deep into not only the conscious, but also the unconscious of heroes by means of the method of the "stream of consciousness ".
keywords:"Stream of Consciousness", and Otar, Chiladze's, Novels Category: SCHOLARLY STUDIES Authors: TAMAR GEGESHIDZE
The Georgian Translations of Andrew of Crete’s Great Canon and Some Aspects of the Canon’s Establishment as a Genre
Andrew of Crete’s Great Canon is one of the oldest and most important monuments of Christian spiritual heritage. There are several factors that make this mas terpiece of hymnology particularly important for Georgian liturgical and hagiographical scholarship. The Hymns of Repentance by the great David Aghmashenebeli (David IV the Builder, 1073 – 24 January 1125), King of Georgia, are inspired by this Canon. In addition, the names of three of the most notable representatives of Georgian literature, Ekvtime Mtatsmideli ( St. Euthymius the Hagiorite), Giorgi Mtatsmideli (George the Hagiorite, George the Athonite), and Arsen Iqaltoeli (Arsen of Iqalto), are associated with this work; they have all translated St. Andreas’ Canon of Repentance and have established it as one of the most important and monumental works of the Christian liturgical poetry in Georgia. Beyond these historical indications, as the current reevaluation of asceticism as both a religious -mystical experience and a unique phenomenon in itself is taking place, the Canon is particularly relevant in today’s world. Even the representatives of Poststructuralism and Postmodernism have taken interest in the essence of Askesis, recognizing it as a positive occurrence. Furthermore, asceticism is regarded as the universal prerequisite of a culture as it is, as a basis that largely determines relationships between cultures and creates possibilities of initiating communications between them. It is widely recognized that the foundations of universal ethics are highlighted precisely in ascetic literature and that today’s intellectual elite cannot add anything new to these principles. Some scholars even think that the alternations of strong, complex, dramatic feelings that are associated with repentance, which is the leading motif of Askesis, are expressed in liturgical poetry better than in treatises. As such, they strongly advise deep contemplation of Andrew of Crete’s hymns of atonement, his famous Great Canon [16, p. 65].
keywords:The Georgian, Translations, of Andrew, of Crete’s, Great, Canon, and Some, Aspects, of the Canon’s, Establishment, as a Genre Category: SCHOLARLY STUDIES Authors: LAURA GRIGOLASHVILI
Shota Rustaveli (Encyclopedic Research)
The review article represents all issues concerning Rustaveli’s work. The main emphasis falls on the questions of ideal world view and the specificity of artistic style of the MPS. The article deals with the methodology issues of Rustaveli Studies as well.
Medieval Georgian culture belongs to the cardinal process of Christian thinking development. It gradually reveals the basic steps of European Christian civilizations. In the late 12th and early 13th centuries, at the highest peak of its development, it represented the newest and the most modern tendencies of Christian thinking of those times. However the highest peak of the medieval Georgian culture is Vepkhistkaosani – The Man in the Panther Skin (MPS) by Rustaveli, being one of the best examples of a synthesis of Eastern and Western cultural streams, literary in particular. At the same time, similar to the whole essence of Georgian religious-philosophical and literary process of those times, it belongs to European Christian civilization. By its artistic actualizing world view and aesthetic ideals of its epoch, MPS is one of the most significant works of world literature.
keywords:Rustaveli, the Man in the Panther Skin, Ramayana, Shakespeare, Dante Category: SCHOLARLY STUDIES Authors: ELGUJA KHINTIBIDZE
Georgian Educational and Cultural Center in Montauban (The latest materials)
There was a Georgian Monastery in the vicinity of Paris in the second half of the 19th century. Quite a few scholarly studies have been conducted in order to explore this Georgian centre. This article analyses some newly found facts, based on the materials obtained by the Director of Montauban Municipal Archive - Pascal Leroy, (the study by P. Leroy will be published in the current ssue of The Kartvelologist.
keywords:Montauban, Pascal Leroy, Peter Kharischirashvili Category: SCHOLARLY STUDIES Authors: AVTANDIL NIKOLEISHVILI
The Meaning of Vepx-i in Shota Rustaveliʼs "The Man in the Pantherʼs Skin"
The present work refers to the interpretation of the animal – tiger given in the MPS. According to the author, the name is not related to the modern Georgian tiger.
The literal translation of the title of the famous poem Vepxist’q’aosani, written by Shota Rustaveli (or Rustveli as he himself specifies) around 1190s, is “The One clad in the Skin of a Vepxi” and has been translated into all the principal European languages and into Russian as The Man (Lord, Knight) in the Panther’s (Tiger’s) Skin. The difference in the translation between Man, Lord or Knight depends on the aesthetics of the translator, but the meaning remains the same. On the other hand, the translation of vepx-i as panther/leopard or as tiger is of far greater significance. It is true that we are speaking about two animals both belonging to the family of felines, but the panther has a spotted coat, while the tiger has a striped coat. The various translators of Vepxist’q’aosani were certainly in contact with informants, but how could it happen that some informants have suggested translating vepx-i as panther and others as tiger? Rustaveli employs the ancient word vepx-i (in modern Georgian vepxv-i, with the meaning of leopard/panther, scientifically the same animal, i.e. Felis pardus, today Panthera pardus) . Beginning at least in the second half of the 19th Century, the term vepxv-i was reconceptualised in Georgian as tiger, so that many Georgians – as well as some quite harsh critics ‒ think today that the animal to which Rustaveli refers is a tiger.
keywords:Vepxist’q’aosani, “The Man in the Panther Skin”, Rustaveli, tiger, leopard, panther, vepxi Category: SCHOLARLY STUDIES Authors: Luigi Magarotto
The Man in the Panther Skin and Literary Sources of Cymbeline
The present work analyses the MPS by Rustaveli, being the literary source of Cymbeline (by Shakespeare) in relevance with other sources.
English literary criticism has long been aware that Shakespeare tended to transpose, rethink and modify both previously unknown and fashionable plots of his time in their entirety as well as separate passages, thus creating masterpieces of “novel” inspiration and world view. A multiplicity of literary sources is one of the defining characteristics of Shakespeare’s dramatic works. Cymbeline is especially noteworthy in this regard. In the introduction to Cymbeline in Volume VIIIof his Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shakespeare, Geoffrey Bullough pays particular attention to eight sources: the first book of Holinshed’s Chronicles; the second book of Holinshed’s Chronicles, History of Scotland; Boccaccio’s The Decameron; Frederyke of Jennen; the comedy by Lope de Rueda Eufemia, Bandello’s Discourses; The Rare Triumphes of Love and Fortune, and Jerusalem Delivered by Torquato Tasso [18, pp. 38-114]. The relationship of Cymbeline to these sources is not homogeneous. Extracts from several of them (Eufemia; Bandello’s Discourses; Jerusalem Delivered) are considered to be analogous to several passages in Cymbeline. Shakespearean literature also points out the likeness of Cymbeline to other sources. It has also been noted that, like other plays of Shakespeare, here, the traditions of ancient narrative, especially those of Greek romance, are also visible. Specifically, the following parallels are indicated: the story of the wager; the disappearance and eventual reappearance of King Cymbeline’s sons; Imogen’s mistaking the corpse of Cloten for Posthumus; the war of the Ancient Britons against Rome; the central line of the plot of the play: separation of the couples; intricate adventures; and finally, the couples’ reunion. The following sources are named for the play: Chariton’s Chaereas and Callirhoe, Helidorus’ Æthiopica, Longus’ Daphnis and Chloe, andXenophon of Ephesus’ Ephesiaca [8; 2, p. 8]. In this tradition, we can only see the ancient prototype of the plot of Cymbeline or its separate episodes. Scholars also point to reminiscences or allusions from plots closer to Shakespeare’s time: Sidney’s Arcadia, and Macbeth by Shakespeare himself [10, p. X]. I have already discussed two allegorical sources, the reminiscences of which in Cymbeline are more probable (the fairy tale of Snow White and the seven dwarves on the one hand, and the story of Caesar Augustus’ family on the other).
keywords:“The Man in the Panther Skin”, “Cymbeline”, “Decameron”, “The Rare Triumphes of Love and Fortune” Category: SCHOLARLY STUDIES Authors: ELGUJA KHINTIBIDZE