The Kartvelologist

The Kartvelologist” is a bilingual (Georgian and English) peer-reviewed, academic journal, covering all spheres of Kartvelological scholarship. Along with introducing scholarly novelties in Georgian Studies, it aims at popularization of essays of Georgian researchers on the international level and diffusion of foreign Kartvelological scholarship in Georgian scholarly circles.

“The Kartvelologist” issues both in printed and electronic form. In 1993-2009 it came out only in printed form (#1-15). The publisher is the “Centre for Kartvelian Studies” (TSU), financially supported by the “Fund of the Kartvelological School”. In 2011-2013 the journal is financed by Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation.

Tinatin Margalitadze, Marika Odzeli 

Lexicographic Activities of Marjory Wardrop


In Georgia, Marjory Wardrop is primarily known as a translator of The Knight in the Panther’s Skin into English and a great friend of our country. She had very strong ties with the 19th century Georgian public figures and representatives of the Georgian intellectual elite. In the 20th century her name became widely known and she was familiar, with great affection, to everybody in Georgia. Now, in the 21st century, Georgians should not consign to oblivion the works and achievements of this brilliant English lady. We believe it would be highly appropriate to once again remind our public about the great services she rendered to the promotion of Georgian culture. In the present article we shall focus on a comparatively less well-known aspect of her activities – lexicography.

In a letter dated December 29, 1891, Marjory writes to her brother Oliver: “My mother has travelled to the countryside to visit her relatives and so I am all alone and no-one can distract me from my work. While mother is absent, I am trying to translate into English the Knight in the Panther’s Skin – the famous epic poem by the prominent mediaeval author from 12th century Georgia, Shota Rustaveli.” 1891 is regarded by the researchers of literature as the year when the translation of the Knight in the Panther’s Skin began. In her letter of October 31, 1892 to her brother Oliver, Marjory makes the first mention of the dictionary: “Now I have 510 entries in my English-Georgian dictionary”. In the dictionary itself, Marjory names 1891 as the year when she began to work on the dictionary proper. Thus, the work on the translation of the Knight in the Panther’s Skin and on the Georgian dictionary was started by Marjory Wardrop simultaneously. Marjory dedicated all her life to the translation of the Knight in the Panther’s Skin. After the translation was completed, she worked to the very end of her life in order to further improve the text. On December 3, 1892 Marjory entered the 1, 000th word in her English-Georgian dictionary and never continued the work on it again. On June 8, 1895 Marjory reportedly began to work on the compilation of a Georgian-English dictionary. This dictionary is also unfinished[1]. Apparently, this is only a small part of her intended work – up to 200 words from letter ბ. The material documenting these facts, processed by means of descriptive method, is kept in the Wardrop Fund of the Bodleian Library at Oxford University[2].

Marjory Scott Wardrop was born on November 26, 1869 in London, and died on December 7 1909 in Bucharest. A large part of her brief life was associated with Georgia. Marjory had two brothers – Oliver and Thomas. Sir Oliver Wardrop, a British diplomat, traveller and translator was the United Kingdom’s Chief Commissioner of Transcaucasus and Georgia. The Wardrops had a very close-knit and loving family.

Marjory took her first interest in Georgia being influenced by the works of Marie-Félicité Brosset. As a twenty-year-old girl, she began to study Georgian and from that time, the Georgian literature became the meaning of her life. She embarked on translation practice and faithfully served this field till the end of her days. In her lifetime there were published Georgian Folk Tales, and The Hermit by Ilia Chavchavadze translated by Marjory and The Life of St. Nino, which she translated in cooperation with her brother Oliver. Many of her manuscripts remained unpublished, including the greatest treasure – The Knight in the Panther’s Skin. Marjory worked on this translation for eighteen years. The English translation of the epic poem was first published in 1912, already after her death. The book was supplied with a preface written by Oliver Wardrop[3]. The translation is important in many respects – it introduced the poem to the English-speaking world, its text adequately matches that of the original. It follows most accurately and faithfully the original, which fact greatly contributed to the subsequent use of Marjory’s translation as an intermediary for the successful rendering of the Knight in the Panther’s Skin into various languages of the world.

Wardrop’s English translation was used by Chinese translators[4, p. 225]. Based on this translation, they produced three different translations of the poem. Italian translators (M. Picchi, P. Angioletti) also relied primarily upon Wardrop’s translation, although they made certain use of Sergo Tsuladze’s translation as well[4, p. 142]. The Finnish translation of the poem was also made from Wardrop’s translation[2, p. 86]. It is interesting to remember how this translation was initiated. In 1966, the 800th anniversary of Shota Rustaveli, at the congress of International Federation of Translators in Finland, a Finnish translator Olavi Linus met with the Georgian scholar and translator Givi Gachechiladze, who presented him with the Wardrop’s translation of the epic. For many years, Linus considered translating it into Finnish, trying to find a mode of Finnish versification, which would adequately correspond with the Rustavelian poetic metre. At the University of Helsinki Linus was advised to contact David Barrett, the head of the Faculty of Oriental Studies of the Bodleian Library. Barrett knew both Georgian and Finnish languages and was very familiar with mediaeval literature in general and the Knight in the Panther’s Skin in particular. He constantly advised Olavi Linus in the process of his translation endeavour, providing immeasurable assistance. When this translation was published in 1991, a symposium on Rustvelology and the presentation of the Finnish translation of the Knight in the Panther’s Skin were held at the University of Turku on the initiative of the translator. Rustvelologists and translators of the poem into different languages were invited to this forum. Before Barrett’s departure to Finland, Marjory’s niece Nina Wardrop gave him her memoirs written in the form of documentary prose, entitled Marjory and Oliver, asking Barrett to pass it on to Georgian scholars who were to attend the symposium. Barrett gave the paper to Prof. Elguja Khintibidze, who later widely publicized it throughout Georgia [5]. This semi-documentary memoir is extremely important for it is composed by Sir Oliver’s daughter and gives us a new insight into the family environment of the Wardrops, showing their portraits, recounting little-known facts of their lives, marking Marjory’s fabulous assiduity, revealing the details of her creative method, her joy or dissatisfaction, her great interest in and immensurable love of Georgia, its language and culture.

The lives and activities of Oliver and Marjory Wardrops are duly studied and appreciated both by Georgian and British scholars. As David M. Lang once said, these two devoted scholars gained fame among the world’s Orientalist circles by their works and achievements. At the same time, their material resources enabled the promotion of Kartvelological researches at the University of Oxford[6, p. 118]. Creative and scientific activities of the Wardrops were described in the Georgian press of both the 19th and 20th centuries; a monograph entitled Marjory Wardrop[7] was written; a major research paper was also composed which gives a detailed description of the Wardrops’ relationship with Georgia and the Georgian culture[8].

Marjory Wardrop’s English-Georgian Dictionary
In 1891 Marjory Wardrop was 22 years old. Some may think that it was a piece of uncompromising juvenile maximalism on the part of such young a person to simultaneously undertake two projects of huge enormity – the translation of the Knight in the Panther’s Skin and the compilation of an English-Georgian dictionary. This intent of Marjory did not however stem only from her youthful boldness and enthusiasm. Marjory had received an excellent education and knew fluently several foreign languages, such as French, German, Italian and Russian. She learned Georgian perfectly and, while living in Bucharest, also mastered Romanian. Taking into consideration her translation activities, the wish to produce an English-Georgian dictionary was only natural, for such a dictionary would serve as “an entrée into the world of Georgian culture” and would “open the doors to the wonders of Georgian culture,” as Howard I. Aronson, an American Kartvelologist, wrote in his 1998 letter to the Editorial Staff of the Comprehensive English-Georgian Dictionary. Many English Kartvelologists complained in the 20th century about the lack of adequate English-Georgian and Georgian-English dictionaries. “The importance of Georgian literature is out of all proportion to the number of speakers of the language” – these are the opening words of the monograph by British Kartvelologist Donald Rayfield The Literature of Georgia. A History[9]. It was also his love for Georgian literature which led Donald Rayfield to a career in lexicography. As a result, his extensive Georgian-English dictionary was published in London in 2006[10]. Thus, Marjory Wardrop’s wish to produce such dictionaries fits in perfectly with the general aspirations of the researchers interested in the Georgian language and literature.

So how serious and comprehensive was the desire of Marjory Wardrop?
In our opinion, Marjory intended to produce an extensive English-Georgian dictionary. We are led to such a conclusion by Marjory’s decision to use Chambers’s 600-page etymological dictionary of the English language as a basis for her dictionary [11]. The Wardrop Fund of the Bodleian Library at Oxford University contains a copy of etymological dictionary of the English language, formerly belonging to Marjory Wardrop, which was bound especially for her in order to be used for the production of English-Georgian dictionary.
“English-Georgian Dictionary by Marjory Wardrop begun November 1891 (December 5, 1892 1000 words finished” (see Figure 1)

This is the handwritten inscription on the first page of the etymological dictionary made by Marjory herself. On the next page we read: Chambers’s Etymological Dictionary of the English Language, and written in Marjory’s hand: “And English-Georgian Dictionary” (see Figure 2)

As noted above, the etymological dictionary was bound specifically for Marjory. Each page of the etymological dictionary is supplied with a blank page, where Marjory wrote down Georgian matches for English words, gradually compiling her own dictionary (see Figure 3). On Decembar 5, 1892 she entered the 1000th word in her dictionary.

The preface to the Chambers’s etymological dictionary says that the dictionary includes practically all English words, except for obsolete and very rare ones. However, the dictionary contains obsolete words attested in the Bible. The wordlist of the dictionary also includes scientific and technical terminology. So this is a comprehensive etymological and explanatory dictionary of the English language, which Marjory uses as the basis for her English-Georgian dictionary.

The Wordlist of the English-Georgian Dictionary
It would be interesting to make an analysis of the wordlist of Marjory’s dictionary in order to find out what kind of words she included therein.

A considerable part of the dictionary wordlist represents the vocabulary of the Knight in the Panther’s Skin. Cited below are the words from the English-Georgian dictionary, representing the vocabulary of Knight in the Panther’s Skin with the indication of the relevant pages from the English-Georgian dictionary, as well as the lines from Rustaveli’s poem containing these words and Marjory’s translation thereof, with the indication of relevant strophes and lines:

(1) Firmament სამყარო (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 179)
„რომელმან შექმნა სამყარო ძალითა მით ძლიერითა“ 1,1
‘He who created the firmament, by that mighty power’ 1,1
(2) Peerless უებრო (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 368)
მოსამართლე და მოწყალე, მორჭმული, განგებიანი,
თვით მეომარი უებრო, კვლა მოუბარი წყლიანი. 32,4
just and gracious, powerful, far-seeing, himself
a peerless warrior, moreover fluent in speech. 32,4
(3) General სპასპეტი (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 200)
ავთანდილ იყო სპასპეტი, ძე ამირ-სპასალარისა 40,2
Avt’handil was a general, son of the commander-in-chief 40,2
(4) Cypress სარო (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 109)
საროსა მჯობი ნაზარდი, მსგავსი მზისა და მთვარისა 40,2
He was more graceful than the cypress; his presence was like the sun and moon 40,2
(5) Agile ჩაუქი (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 9)
თავსა ზის პირ-მზე ავთანდილ, მჭვრეტთაგან მოსანდომია,
სპათა სპასპეტი, ჩაუქი, ვითა ვეფხი და ლომია. 57,2
At the head sat the sun-faced Avt’handil, desirable to them
That look upon him, the agile leader of the hosts. 57,2
(6) Beardless უწვერო (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 36)
ჯერთ უწვერული, სადარო ბროლ-მინა საცნობარისა 40,3
Still beardless, he was to be likened to famous crystal and glass 40,3
(7) Army ჯარი, სპა, გუნდი (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 23)
უკუდგეს და თაყვანის-სცეს მეფემან და მისთა სპათა 46,1
The king and his armies retired and did homage 46,1
(8) Gift საბოძვარი (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 202)
დია გასცა საბოძვარი, ყველა დარბაზს შემოხადა 119,3
many gifts were distributed, he summoned all to the throne-room 119,3
(9) Amorous სააშიკო (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 15)
სააშიკოდ, სალაღობოდ, ამხანაგთა სათრეველად 17,2
the joyous, the amorous, the merry, for pleasantries of comrades 24,1
(10) Adroit მარჯვე (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 7)
მართლად ცემა, მარჯვედ ქნევა 13,2
striking a ball fairly and aiming adroitly at the mark 20,2
In many cases, English equivalents of the words from the vocabulary of the Knight in the Panther’s Skin, included in the English-Georgian dictionary, are attested in the English translation of the poem as well. The above examples are the representations of these very cases. Not infrequently, however, a Georgian word in the English version of the poem is translated with contextually much better matching equivalent, than it is in the dictionary proper. E.g.

(11) Infamous ნაძრახი (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 256)
სჯობს სიცოცხლესა ნაძრახსა, სიკვდილი სახელოვანი“ 800,4
Better a glorious death than shameful life 781,3
(12) Austere უწყალო (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 29)
უწყალო, ვითა ჯიქია 19,3
merciless as a leopard 26,3
(13) Accident, mishap ფათერაკი (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 3, 321)
შენგან დავჰრჩით ჩვენ ყველანი ფათერაკსა ეზომ ძნელსა
We all are saved by thee in so hard a mischance
სდევს მიჯნურსა ფათერაკი 915,1
Mischance pursues the lover 895,1
(14) Accession გამეფება (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 3)
“ბედი ჩემი უბედური, - ვთქვი, თუ, - ჯერთცა ვერ გამეფდა!“ 405,3
‘My luckless fate’, said I, ‘has never yet ruled’. 391,3
(15) Agreeable ამო, ლამაზი (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 10)
გვერდსა დაისხნა, დაუწყო მათ ამო საუბარია 34,4
placing them by his side, began to talk graciously to them 34,4
(16) Achieve, Accomplish გასრულება (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 3, 4)
გასრულდა მათი ამბავი, ვითა სიზმარი ღამისა 1583,1
their tale is ended like a dream of the night 1572,1
გასრულდა ჩემი ანდერძი, ჩემგან ნაწერი ხელითა 807,1
My testament is ended, written by mine own hand 788,1.
In addition to the vocabulary from the Knight in the Panther’s Skin, Marjory Wardrop’s English-Georgian dictionary includes numerous Biblical words. The dictionary also contains: the names of the days of the week, the names of the seasons of the year, the names of months, numerals, words denoting animals and plants, as well as words from everyday vocabulary.
Wherever possible, Marjory tries to render an English word with several synonymous Georgian words, e.g.

(17)Banquet პურობა, დარბაზობა, სერი, ანკანაკობა (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 33)
Bank ნაპირი, კიდური, პირი (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 33)
April აპრილი, იგრიკა (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 21)
August აგვისტო, მარიამობისთვე (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 28)
November ნოემბერი, გიორგობისა, ჭირის-კონა (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 342)
Love მიჯნურობა, სიყუარული, აშიკობა (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 299)
Letter წერილი, უსტარი, წიგნი (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 288) .
June იუნისი, თიბისა, თიბა-თვე (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 275)
July იულისი, მკისა, მკათა-თვე (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 275)
Fog ბუერი, ბური, ბორი, ბურუსი, ნისლი (Eng.-Georg. dict. p.184), and so on.
The English-Georgian dictionary by Marjory Wardrop includes several interesting entries, where she gives not only a Georgian equivalent of the particular English word, but also several collocations of the English word in question, which requires different Georgian equivalents in the process of translation into Georgian, e.g.
(18) Foot ფეხი; foot of a mount or tree მთის ან ხის ძირი; foot path ბილიკი (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 185)
Peak თხემი; peak of a mountain მთის მწვერვალი (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 367)
Snow თოვლი; first snow of Autumn ფიფქი (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 475)
Road გზა; high road შარა (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 437)
Master პატრონი; master of banquet მასპინძელი (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 308)
Elegant ლამაზი; of elegant form კენარი, ტურფა (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 148)
Mother მშობელი, დედა; mother of pearls სადაფი (Eng.-Georg. dict. p. 328), and so on.
A slip of paper pertaining to Marjory Wardrop’s dictionary attracts special attention. This slip of paper is inserted in the Chambers’s dictionary at p. 121 and contains a word-entry for the English verb ‘to desire’:
To desire ლამვა (ვლამი, ლამი, ლამის, ვლამოდი) ვინადგან შენ ლამი ჩემსა ცნობასა, since thou desirest to know me. R 982
This slip of paper is interesting for several reasons: (1) next to the masdar (i.e. verbal noun) ‘ლამვა’, in round brackets there are shown finite personal forms of the verb; (2) an illustrative phrase supplied with its English translation is included; and (3) the source of the phrase is indicated. Letter R in this case means (Shota) Rustaveli. The letter has the number of the cited strophe from the Knight in the Panther’s Skin. It is interesting to note that this slip is based on the relevant word-entry ‘ლამა, ლამვა’ from David Chubinashvili’s dictionary[12]. The above quote from the Knight in the Panther’s Skin is cited also in David Chubinashvili’s dictionary, with the reference made to its relevant source. Thus, this single slip of paper with a word-entry on it, inserted in the volume of the dictionary of Chambers, is inspired by David Chubinashvili’s dictionary and his lexicographic principles. What is this slip of paper indicative of? Did Marjory plan to rework her English-Georgian dictionary based on these principles, did she plan to supply verbs with their finite forms, to enrich dictionary entries with illustrative phrases and sentences, making references to the sources thereof? Difficult to say, but this slip is undoubtedly a very interesting fragment of Marjory Wardrop’s English-Georgian dictionary, for it serves as an evidence of the fact that Marjory Wardrop was well acquainted with the best lexicographic practices of her time, adopted in English, as well as in French, Russian and Georgian lexicography.

Mistakes, Imprecisions
Marjory Wardrop’s dictionary is remarkable in the first place due to the fact that it contains very few mistakes and imprecisions (see below an excerpt of the dictionary, letter A). English words are matched with their Georgian equivalents with an amazing precision. This is more astonishing taking into account the circumstance that the dictionary under consideration was never finished or published. The dictionary includes some Georgian words which are not referred to any English word in relevant page and column of the dictionary of Chambers. E.g. word ‘ბუბუნი’ on page 14 of the English-Georgian dictionary. In the Explanatory Dictionary of the Georgian Language (E.D.G.L.) [13] ‘ბუბუნი’ is explained as follows: ხარის გაბმული ნელი ყვირილი ბუღრაობისას; დიდი ხმაური, გუგუნი. This word has no relation to the words represented on this page: ‘Ambush’, ‘Ameer’, ‘Ameliorate’, ‘Amen’, ‘Amenable’, ‘Amend’, ‘Amendment’, ‘Amends’, ‘Amenity’, etc. Another example: page 19 of the dictionary features the word ‘ანთარი’, which is explained in the E.D.G.L. as ძვ. ღვთაება მეგრელთა წარმართულ პანთეონში. This word cannot have English equivalent, of course. There are mistakes too. For example on page 23 of the English-Georgian dictionary, the word ‘თაღი’ is indicated as the equivalent of Ark instead of ‘კიდობანი’ [a chest or coffer; a large floating vessel]. On page 28 of the dictionary, the word ‘მარიალი’, meaning ‘June’ is cited as a synonym of the words ‘აგვისტო’ and ‘მარიამობისთვე’ (both meaning ‘August’). However, as noted earlier, such cases in the dictionary are rare.

Excerpt from Marjory Wardrop’s English-Georgian Dictionary
Abba n [in Chaldee and Syriac, a father ] აბბა, ამბა
Abbot n [the father or head of an abbey] აბბატი
Abandoned adj [given up, as to a vice: very wicked] ოხერი
Abundant adj [plentiful] მეტი
Acacia n [a genus of thorny leguminous plants with pinnate leaves] აკაკი, ბრინჯის ხე
Accept vt [to receive: to agree: to promise to pay] მიღება
Accession n [a coming to] გამეფება
Accident n [that which happens: an unforeseen or unexpected event] ფათერაკი
Accomplish vt [to complete: to effect: to fulfill: to equip] გასრულება
Account n [a counting: statement] ნუსხა
Achieve vt [to bring to a head or end: to perform: to accomplish] გასრულება
Acrostic n [a poem of which, if the first or the last letter of each line be taken in succession, they will spell a name, or a sentence] აკროსტიხი
Act n [a part of a play] მოქმედება (პიესისა)
Activity n მოძრაობა
Adopted adj შვილობილი
Adorned adj შემკობილი
Adroit adj [dexterous: skilful] მარჯვე
Affliction n [distress or its cause] ვამი
After adj [behind in place: later in time] მერმე
Again adv [once more: in return: back] კვალად [Same as ‘კვლავ’ - E.D.G.L.]
Age n [the ordinary length of human life: the time during which a person or thing has lived or existed: mature years] სიბერე
Agile adj [active: nimble] მარდი, ჩაუქი
Agreeable adj [suitable: pleasant] ამო, ლამაზი
Alabaster n [a semi-transparent kind of gypsum or sulphate of lime: the fine limestone deposited as stalagmites and stalactites] ალაბასტრი
Alack-a-day int [an exclamation of sadness] ვუჲ
Alas int [expressive of grief] გლახ, ვუჲ, ვამე
All adj [the whole of: everyone of] ყოველი
Almost adv [nearly] ლამის
Aloe n [a genus of plant with juicy leaves yielding the gum of aloes] ალო
Although conj [admitting all that: notwithstanding that] თუმცა, განაღამცა
Altogether adv [all together: wholly: completely: without exception] ყოლე [E.D.G.L. - obs. also ‘ყოლა’ - altogether, completely]
Alone adj [single: solitary] მარტო
Alphabet n [the letters of a language arranged in the usual order] ანბანი
Also adv [in like manner: further] კიდეც
Altered adj თაღლითი
Amber n [a yellowish fossil resin, used in making ornaments] ქარვა
Amulet n [a gem, scroll or other object carried about a person, as a charm against evil] ამმა [E.D.G.L. ამმა - obs. = amulet, talisman]
Amusing adj [affording amusement: entertaining] სალაღობო
Amorous adj [easily inspired with love: fondly in love: relating to love] სააშიკო
Angel n [a divine messenger: a ministering spirit] ანგელოსი
Angelic, Angelical adj ანგელოსებრი, ანგელოსური
Ancient adj [old: belonging to former times] ძველი
And conj და
Animal n [an organised being, having life, sensation, and voluntary motion] სულდგმული
Answer n [a reply: a solution] პასუხი
Apocalypse n [the name of the last book of the New Testament] აპოკალიფსი
Apparition n [something only apparent, not real: a ghost] ლანდი
Apple n [the fruit of the apple-tree] ვაშლი
April n [the fourth month of the year] აპრილი, იგრიკა
Archer n [one who shoots with a bow and arrows] მშვილდოსანი
Around adv [on every side: in a circle] გარეშემო
Arrow n [s straight, pointed weapon, made to be shot from a bow] ისარი
Ark n [a chest or coffer: a large floating vessel] თაღი
Arm n [the limb extending from the shoulder to the hand] მკლავი
Armchair n სავარძელი
Arms n pl [weapons of offence and defence] აბჯარი, იარაღი
Army n [a large body of man armed for war and under military command] ჯარი, სპა, გუნდი
Ashamed adj: to be ashamed რცხვენა
Ashes n pl [the dust or remains of anything burned] ნაცარი
Assemblage n [a collection of persons or things] შემოყრილობა, გუნდი
Aspen n [the trembling poplar] ვერხვი
Ass n [a well-known quadruped of the horse family] ვირი; she-ass რემა, რემაკი; wild ass კანჯარი
August n [the eighth month of the year] აგვისტო, მარიამობისთვე, მარიალი, ქველობისა
Audacity n [audacious – daring: bold: impudent] ლაღობა
Autumn n [the third season of the year] შემოდგომა
Austere adj [harsh, severe, stern] უწყალო
Author n [the writer of an original book] ავქსონი [Obs. same as ‘ავტორი’ - E.D.G.L.]

Marjory Wardrop’s Georgian-English Dictionary
In 1895, Marjory Wardrop resumes her lexicographic activities and begins to work on a Georgian-English dictionary (see Figure 4). This dictionary is also unfinished and up to 200 word-entries on letter ბ are available. Despite the fact, that only about 200 word-entries have been composed, the dictionary is interesting from the viewpoint of its lexicographic principles.

Unlike the English-Georgian dictionary, the Georgian-English dictionary is based entirely upon the Georgian-Russian dictionary by David Chubinashvili (see Figure 5).

Not unlike what we see in the Chubinashvili’s dictionary, Marjory supplies loanwords with their etymologies shown in brackets (T - Turkish, Arab - Arabic, Arm - Armenian, Per - Persian) and often adduces words in Persian, Arabic, Turkish and other languages corresponding to the words in the source language. Supplying verbs with their finite personal forms is already seen in the dictionary as a set principle. In the initial version of the dictionary, Marjory would supply loanwords with their explanations in Georgian from the dictionary by Chubinashvili, although later she struck these explanations out.

The use of synonyms is frequent also in the Georgian-English dictionary. Marjory matches Georgian words with several synonymous English words. In some cases synonyms are seen in the Georgian section of the dictionary as well, e.g. ბაასი ‘dispute, discussion, contest, debate’.
In her dictionary, Marjory cites the sources of Biblical words, e.g. ბაბილო ‘branch, shoot, bough, sprout’ [Ezek. 31 – 8; Ps. 79 – 10], ბადენი [Arm] ‘linen garment’ [Daniel 10 – 5]. These sources are adduced in David Chubinashvili’s dictionary, which, as noted earlier, Marjory relied upon while compiling her dictionary.

Remarkable in the dictionary is also the principle, according to which plant names are supplied with their relevant designations in Latin, e.g. ბაბუას საგძალი, ბაბუასწვერა, ბაბუსაგძალა taraxacum officinale, ბადიანი [Per] anise (illicium anisatum), ბადრაგი citron (Citrus medica Risso), etc.
In the dictionary entries dedicated to Georgian words, we come across the collocations which are also translated into English. Like the English-Georgian dictionary, Marjory’s Georgian-English dictionary is equally amazing in respect to her skill in finding exact English matches for Georgian words. Cited below is an excerpt from the Georgian-English dictionary:

Excerpt from Marjory Wardrop’s Georgian-English Dictionary
ბაასი (ცილობა, პაექრობა, ლაპარაკში შებმა) dispute, discussion, contest, debate
ბაასობა ვბაასობ , ვიბაასებ, ვებაასები (ვსცილობ, ვპაექრობ) debate, dispute, discuss; ნაბაასები, საბაასო disputable
ბაბა childish expression for bread
ბაბანი trembling, shuddering
ბაბაყული a name of a bird
ბაბაჭუა spider
ბაბთა lace
ბაბილო branch, shoot, bough, sprout [Ezek. 31 – 8; Ps. 79 – 10]
ბაბრაბი [T] leopard’s skin, bear’s skin
ბაბრი [T] leopard, bear
ბაბღანი [T] parrot
ბაბღანი bear’s skin
ბაბუა grandfather
ბაბუას საგძალი, ბაბუასწვერა, ბაბუსაგძალა taraxacum officinale
ბაბუშტელა juniper berry
ბაგა a newly planted vine
ბაგა manger, crib; ბაგათ-მთავარი chief groom
ბაგა recess of a wall
ბაგე lip; front stern of a vessel; bank of a stream; შერევნა ბაგეთა confusion of languages
ბაგიანი, ბაგეებიანი oral, verbal
ბაგინი [Arm.] sanctuary, altar, victim
ბაგირი rope
ბაგოვნები roof, covering
ბადაგი molasses, syrup
ბადალი [Arab.] compensation, substitute, like, instead of
ბადახშა, ბადახში, ბადახშოვანი ruby
ბადე net, everything in the form of net; ბადე მაქმანი or ნაქმანი lace; ბადე დედა ზარდლისა spider’s web; ბადე-ბადე in the form of a net; ბადის-პირი the opening of a fishing net
ბადება (ვბადებ) to create, bear, produce, form
(ვიბადები) to be born, created
(მაბადია, გაბადია, აბადია I have, thee have, he has, to have)
ბადეებრი, ბადეებიანი formed of nets
ბადენი [Arm] linen garment [Daniel 10 – 5]
ბადვა, ბადუა see ბადება
ბადია [Per] jar, gobbet; dish
ბადიანი [Per] anise (illicium anisatum)
ბადიმი framework to cover well
ბადის პირი hauling rope
ბადიში grandson
ბადლიჯანი see ბადრიჯანი
ბადრაგა convoy, escort
ბადრაგი citron (Citrus medica Risso)
ბადრაგობა to escort
ბადრი [Arab] full moon
ბადრიჯანი [Per] aubergine (solanum melongena)
ბადრობა fullness of the moon, equality; to compare, to be equal to, to liken
ბადრუკი unfortunate, miserable, unhappy, horrible;
ბადრუკობა misfortune, to be unfortunate
ბავასირი see ბუასილი
ბავთი, ბავთება [Arm] bad news; ბავთის მომღები a bearer of bad tidings
ბავლი first bird caught by falcon

Conclusion. Marjory Wardrop really intended to produce English-Georgian and Georgian-English dictionaries. Her archives contain many English-Georgian glossaries, which Marjory compiled while reading Georgian books, but she never referred to such glossaries as dictionaries. It is also worth mentioning that she was well acquainted with the best lexicographic practices, as well as with the lexicographic scientific works of her time.

Why are both of her dictionaries unfinished?
We can only make assumptions about the subject. One cause must have been the lack of time, since the translation of the Knight in the Panther’s Skin consumed vast amounts of her time and energy; maybe her untimely demise prevented her from the completion of her lexicographic design; We can also suppose that Marjory realized the whole scale of difference between the translation and lexicographic activities, realized that merely finding an English equivalent for a Georgian word while translating could not itself guarantee the production of a dictionary word-entry as such.

Despite the fact that both dictionaries are unfinished, we believe that the materials of Marjory Wardrop’s English-Georgian and Georgian-English dictionaries show another aspect of the versatile talent of this exceptional British Kartvelologist, turning before the eyes of grateful Georgian readers a whole new page of the annals depicting her enormous quest in pursuit of the promotion and popularisation of the Georgian language and culture.


1. Wardrop, Marjorie. S., Georgian-English Word-list, compiled by M.S. Wardrop (unfinished), 1895. Ms. Wardr. C. 1 (10)
2. Odzeli, Marika. On the History of Georgian-English Literary Contacts. Tbilisi University Press, Tbilisi, 1998 (in Georgian).
3. The Man in the Panther’s Skin, A Romantic Epic by Shotha Rusthaveli, a Close Rendering from the Georgian. Attempted by Marjory Scott Wardrop, London, 1912. Preface by O. Wardrop.
4. Menabde, L. Rustaveli in Foreign Scholarship. Tbilisi, 1990 (in Georgian).
5. Wardrop, Nino. Marjory and Oliver. Matsne (series of Language and Literature), 1992, N2, pp. 31-48 (translated from English into Georgian by Marika Odzeli).
6. Lang, David. Georgian Studies in Oxford. Oxford Slavonic Papers, vol.VI, 1955. See also D. M. Lang. Kartvelological Studies at Oxford. Tsiskari, 1957, N4, pp. 139-151 (in Georgian).
7. Taktakishvili-Urushadze, Leila. Marjory Wardrop. Tbilisi, 1965 (in Georgian).
8. Sharadze, Guram. Treasury of Happiness and Virtue (Bednierebisa da Satnoebis Saunje). Tbilisi, 1984 (in Georgian).
9. Rayfield, Donald. The Literature of Georgia. A History. Routledge. 2nd addition. 2000.
10.Rayfield, Donald. A Comprehensive Georgian-English Dictionary. Garnett Press. London, 2006.
11. Chambers’ Etymological Dictionary of the English language: A New and Thoroughly Revised Edition. Edited by A. Findlatter (interleaved copy, with ms. Notes by M.S.Wardrop for an English-Georgian dictionary). London, 1884. Wardr.5.29.
12.Chubinashvili, D. Georgian-Russian Dictionary. ‘Sabtchota Sakartvelo’. Tbilisi, 1984.
13. Explanatory Dictionary of the Georgian Language (Editor in Chief Arn. Chikobava). Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of Georgia. Tbilisi 1950.